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Foundation Science

The Science of Foundation

In this article, we break down the science behind the Creatine + Real ATP in our supplement: Foundation.

  • General Science
  • Regulatory Status & Safety
  • Key Benefits
  • Who Benefits?
  • The Next Gen of N.O.?
  • Muscular Fatigue

Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is considered to be the currency of life by scientists in the field of biology.

This is because ATP is the energy molecule – it is used to fuel nearly every cellular process in the animal and plant kingdoms. Obviously, ATP is very important. Not just for actions with high energy demands, such as exercise, but for every movement our bodies make, including maintenance of electrolyte gradients, digesting proteins, and creating DNA!

Let’s break down the term “adenosine triphosphate.”

Adenosine is the combination of a nucleotide and a pentose sugar, namely adenine and ribose. Attached to the ribose are three phosphate groups all bound together, the triphosphate portion of the name. Within each of these phosphate bonds exists a tremendous amount of energy that our bodies are capable of harnessing when the bonds are broken. When this occurs, the molecule is then known as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and if it loses another phosphate group, adenosine monophosphate (AMP).

Following ATP breakdown to ADP and/or AMP, all is not lost – we can generate new ATP from the existing ADP and AMP through a process known as phosphorylation. Phosphorylation occurs primarily during 3 different metabolic processes, glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain system, and substrate-level phosphorylation from phosphocreatine. Independent from other processes, glycolysis generates 2 molecules of ATP from 1 molecule of glucose, the Krebs cycle + electron transport chain generates 25 molecules of ATP from 1 molecule of glucose, and 1 molecule of phosphocreatine generates 1 molecule of ATP.

When it comes to exercise, it is critical to understand each of these systems for optimal performance.

At rest and during low-intensity exercise, the majority of ATP will be generated from the Krebs cycle + electron transport chain because this system is slow to operate, but it generates the most efficient ATP yield. During moderate to moderately-high intensity exercise, there will be a metabolic shift to primarily rely on glycolysis, as this process can occur quicker, but with fewer ATP yield. Finally at high-intensities, the body can only use the ATP that is already available, but this only lasts about 5-10 seconds. Luckily, creatine phosphate (made from creatine monohydrate) can rapidly regenerate ATP to extend this window to about 10-15 seconds.

While ATP is absolutely essential for its role as the energy molecule, it also serves many other functions. ATP, ADP, and AMP tell our cells about our energy status, which is very important for carrying out numerous cellular functions. For example, only under conditions of high energy (high concentrations of ATP and/or low concentrations of ADP and AMP) will our bodies attempt to build muscle and if the energy status is very low, the cell will begin to break down existing muscle to form more ATP. ATP also interacts with purine receptors that control numerous other cellular functions within our nervous system, brain, blood cells, endothelial cells, kidneys and others.

Supplementation with both creatine and ATP has shown great benefit for athletes.

In a 12-week, periodized study in well-trained men, 400mg of daily ATP supplementation created robust improvements in muscle mass and strength performance. In fact, the ATP supplemented group gained over double the lean mass and strength than did the placebo group from week 0 to week 121. This group of researchers also found ATP to be a vasodilator that enhances the blood flow response to exercise2.

Creatine is one of the most substantiated nutritional supplements available.

With the abundance of information available on creatine’s effects on body composition and performance, the best representation of the data will be available through meta-analysis. 18 studies meeting strict criteria found that creatine supplementation increases lean mass gain by about 250% and strength gain by 200% compared to placebo3! Because this has been observed at least 18 times over, we know this is not due to chance and creatine is an outstanding supplement for improving both body composition and athletic performance.

This is why BrickHouse Nutrition has combined both creatine and ATP into FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP – to ensure that athletes are getting the best that science has to offer.

By combining ATP and creatine, maximal work output can be maintained longer and achieved more frequently, creating gains on top of gains.


1 Wilson, J. M., Joy, J. M., Lowery, R. P., Roberts, M. D., Lockwood, C. M., Manninen, A. H., ... & Rathmacher, J. A. (2013). Effects of oral adenosine-5′-triphosphate supplementation on athletic performance, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery in resistance-trained men. Nutrition & metabolism, 10(1), 1.

2 Jäger, R., Roberts, M. D., Lowery, R. P., Joy, J. M., Cruthirds, C. L., Lockwood, C. M., ... & Wilson, J. M. (2014). Oral adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) administration increases blood flow following exercise in animals and humans. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11(28).

3 Nissen, S. L., & Sharp, R. L. (2003). Effect of dietary supplements on lean mass and strength gains with resistance exercise: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(2), 651-659.

ATP was marketed as a dietary ingredient in the United States prior to October 15, 1994 (the date the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, or DSHEA, was enacted) and therefore does not require FDA premarket notification.

PEAK ATP® has a tremendous safety profile.

It is not a stimulant, and therefore does not adversely affect heart rate or raise blood pressure. In the multiple human clinical trials and pilot studies conducted on PEAK ATP® to date, no adverse reactions have been observed.

We always recommend consulting with a medical professional for guidance before changing or undertaking a new diet or exercise program or adding a dietary supplement to your diet. Advance consultation with your physician is particularly important if you are under eighteen (18) years old, pregnant, nursing, or have health problems.

In 2015 PEAK ATP was granted self-affirmed GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status for use in functional food, bars and powders. A leading independent panel of scientific experts made the decision after reviewing comprehensive scientific evidence covering the oral use of PEAK ATP®. This accreditation compliments our comprehensive technical dossier that includes strong efficacy and safety data, non-GMO, Kosher and cGMP manufacturing accreditations.

Boosts Muscular Excitability®*

Muscular excitability® refers to the ability to activate muscles, thereby causing them to contract. The greater the excitability of the muscle, the greater its force, velocity, and endurance properties will be.

Increases Total Strength by 147%

An athlete will lift more weight and produce a greater number of repetitions per set with oral supplementation of FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP versus placebo.
Clinical Evidence

Increases Power by 30%

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP causes significant increases in vertical jump power versus placebo.
Clinical Evidence

Reduces Muscular Fatigue

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP improves muscular endurance, providing more benefits as more repetitions and sets are performed. Vasodilation and blood flow were higher following ATP supplementation, which would drive recovery processes.
Clinical Evidence

Increases Lean Body Mass by 100%

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP significantly increases lean body mass and muscle thickness over placebo.*
Clinical Evidence

Improves Blood Flow Up to 54%

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP supplementation increases the amount of ATP in red blood cells. When muscles are fatigued, red blood cells release ATP into the blood. The ATP binds to blood vessels and causes them to dilate. The end result is increased blood flow, oxygen delivery, and clearance of metabolic waste products such as lactate.
Clinical Evidence

Enlarges Muscle Calcium Pool

Muscle is excited by the release of calcium into the cell, which serves as the trigger for contraction. FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP works by increasing and sustaining the amount of calcium in the cell. As a result, athletes can lift more weight and produce a greater number of repetitions per set.

Acceptable for Use by All Athletes

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP is acceptable for use in sports and is not banned by any athletic body (per review of the 2013 Banned Substance List of WADA, NFL, MLB, NHL, NBA, NCAA, and NWBF).

Safe When Used as Directed

The safety of oral ingestion is well documented in both human and animal studies.

Protected by US Patents

US 7,629,329 Muscle Mass & Strength
US 5,547,942 Blood Flow & Vascular Function
US 6,723,737 Body Composition

Serious Athletes, Strength Competitors, and Bodybuilders

Athletes of all kinds are always looking for something to give them a competitive edge — whether for increasing power, strength, and muscle mass, reducing fatigue, or improving recovery. PEAK ATP® does it all.*

Casual Athletes and Weekend Warriors

Increasingly, everyday people trying to stay in shape are looking for supplements that can help them reap the most reward with the least effort. Because PEAK ATP® increases the work volume of a workout, it can help even the casual athlete or weekend warrior make the most of time spent exercising.*

Aging Adults and Those Wanting to Improve Body Composition

Sarcopenia is the normal loss of 0.5%-1% of muscle mass every year after the age of 25. Exercise is the most powerful tool to counteract sarcopenia, and PEAK ATP® can help maximize the effects of exercise on muscle mass and strength.

*PEAK ATP® is acceptable for use in sports and is not banned by any athletic body.

L-citrulline and L-arginine

L-citrulline or L-arginine are amino acid precursors to nitric oxide and have been marketed as potential ergogenic aids based on their ability to increase blood flow to the exercising muscle. However, the daily dose needed to increase blood flow is high (6-24g) and the ergogenic response may depend on the training status and health of the subjects. Whereas some studies involving untrained or moderately healthy subjects showed that nitric oxide donors could improve tolerance to aerobic and anaerobic exercise, no significant improvements were measured in healthy or highly-trained subjects.

ATP

In contrast, oral FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP increases blood flow at mg doses and has been shown to increase lean body mass, strength and power in highly trained individuals.

Therefore, oral 400mg/day ATP supplementation is an apparently efficacious method if the intent is increasing post-exercise blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery.

When an athlete becomes fatigued, performance suffers.

Everyone knows this is true, but why does it happen?

Muscular fatigue is caused by a decrease in muscular excitability, or the muscle’s ability to respond rapidly to a stimulating agent telling the muscle to contract. That stimulating agent is calcium.

Unfortunately, exercise depletes calcium from muscle cells, causing a decrease in muscular excitability and an increase in fatigue.

In fact, a 50% decrease in calcium can result in an 80% reduction in force.1

The key to fighting muscular fatigue is to increase muscular excitability.

Increases in muscular excitability lead to an increase in the intensity of muscle contractions

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP increases:

  • Muscle excitability*
  • Levels of extracellular calcium*
  • Blood flow*
  • Nutrient and oxygen delivery*
  • Waste removal*

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP decreases:

  • Muscle fatigue*
  • Recovery time*

1Zhang SJ et al. Limited oxygen diffusion accelerates fatigue development in mouse skeletal muscle. J Psysiol. 2006;572(2):551-9.

General Science

Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is considered to be the currency of life by scientists in the field of biology.

This is because ATP is the energy molecule – it is used to fuel nearly every cellular process in the animal and plant kingdoms. Obviously, ATP is very important. Not just for actions with high energy demands, such as exercise, but for every movement our bodies make, including maintenance of electrolyte gradients, digesting proteins, and creating DNA!

Let’s break down the term “adenosine triphosphate.”

Adenosine is the combination of a nucleotide and a pentose sugar, namely adenine and ribose. Attached to the ribose are three phosphate groups all bound together, the triphosphate portion of the name. Within each of these phosphate bonds exists a tremendous amount of energy that our bodies are capable of harnessing when the bonds are broken. When this occurs, the molecule is then known as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and if it loses another phosphate group, adenosine monophosphate (AMP).

Following ATP breakdown to ADP and/or AMP, all is not lost – we can generate new ATP from the existing ADP and AMP through a process known as phosphorylation. Phosphorylation occurs primarily during 3 different metabolic processes, glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain system, and substrate-level phosphorylation from phosphocreatine. Independent from other processes, glycolysis generates 2 molecules of ATP from 1 molecule of glucose, the Krebs cycle + electron transport chain generates 25 molecules of ATP from 1 molecule of glucose, and 1 molecule of phosphocreatine generates 1 molecule of ATP.

When it comes to exercise, it is critical to understand each of these systems for optimal performance.

At rest and during low-intensity exercise, the majority of ATP will be generated from the Krebs cycle + electron transport chain because this system is slow to operate, but it generates the most efficient ATP yield. During moderate to moderately-high intensity exercise, there will be a metabolic shift to primarily rely on glycolysis, as this process can occur quicker, but with fewer ATP yield. Finally at high-intensities, the body can only use the ATP that is already available, but this only lasts about 5-10 seconds. Luckily, creatine phosphate (made from creatine monohydrate) can rapidly regenerate ATP to extend this window to about 10-15 seconds.

While ATP is absolutely essential for its role as the energy molecule, it also serves many other functions. ATP, ADP, and AMP tell our cells about our energy status, which is very important for carrying out numerous cellular functions. For example, only under conditions of high energy (high concentrations of ATP and/or low concentrations of ADP and AMP) will our bodies attempt to build muscle and if the energy status is very low, the cell will begin to break down existing muscle to form more ATP. ATP also interacts with purine receptors that control numerous other cellular functions within our nervous system, brain, blood cells, endothelial cells, kidneys and others.

Supplementation with both creatine and ATP has shown great benefit for athletes.

In a 12-week, periodized study in well-trained men, 400mg of daily ATP supplementation created robust improvements in muscle mass and strength performance. In fact, the ATP supplemented group gained over double the lean mass and strength than did the placebo group from week 0 to week 121. This group of researchers also found ATP to be a vasodilator that enhances the blood flow response to exercise2.

Creatine is one of the most substantiated nutritional supplements available.

With the abundance of information available on creatine’s effects on body composition and performance, the best representation of the data will be available through meta-analysis. 18 studies meeting strict criteria found that creatine supplementation increases lean mass gain by about 250% and strength gain by 200% compared to placebo3! Because this has been observed at least 18 times over, we know this is not due to chance and creatine is an outstanding supplement for improving both body composition and athletic performance.

This is why BrickHouse Nutrition has combined both creatine and ATP into FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP – to ensure that athletes are getting the best that science has to offer.

By combining ATP and creatine, maximal work output can be maintained longer and achieved more frequently, creating gains on top of gains.


1 Wilson, J. M., Joy, J. M., Lowery, R. P., Roberts, M. D., Lockwood, C. M., Manninen, A. H., ... & Rathmacher, J. A. (2013). Effects of oral adenosine-5′-triphosphate supplementation on athletic performance, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery in resistance-trained men. Nutrition & metabolism, 10(1), 1.

2 Jäger, R., Roberts, M. D., Lowery, R. P., Joy, J. M., Cruthirds, C. L., Lockwood, C. M., ... & Wilson, J. M. (2014). Oral adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) administration increases blood flow following exercise in animals and humans. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11(28).

3 Nissen, S. L., & Sharp, R. L. (2003). Effect of dietary supplements on lean mass and strength gains with resistance exercise: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(2), 651-659.

Regulatory Status & Safety

ATP was marketed as a dietary ingredient in the United States prior to October 15, 1994 (the date the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, or DSHEA, was enacted) and therefore does not require FDA premarket notification.

PEAK ATP® has a tremendous safety profile.

It is not a stimulant, and therefore does not adversely affect heart rate or raise blood pressure. In the multiple human clinical trials and pilot studies conducted on PEAK ATP® to date, no adverse reactions have been observed.

We always recommend consulting with a medical professional for guidance before changing or undertaking a new diet or exercise program or adding a dietary supplement to your diet. Advance consultation with your physician is particularly important if you are under eighteen (18) years old, pregnant, nursing, or have health problems.

In 2015 PEAK ATP was granted self-affirmed GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status for use in functional food, bars and powders. A leading independent panel of scientific experts made the decision after reviewing comprehensive scientific evidence covering the oral use of PEAK ATP®. This accreditation compliments our comprehensive technical dossier that includes strong efficacy and safety data, non-GMO, Kosher and cGMP manufacturing accreditations.

Key Benefits

Boosts Muscular Excitability®*

Muscular excitability® refers to the ability to activate muscles, thereby causing them to contract. The greater the excitability of the muscle, the greater its force, velocity, and endurance properties will be.

Increases Total Strength by 147%

An athlete will lift more weight and produce a greater number of repetitions per set with oral supplementation of FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP versus placebo.
Clinical Evidence

Increases Power by 30%

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP causes significant increases in vertical jump power versus placebo.
Clinical Evidence

Reduces Muscular Fatigue

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP improves muscular endurance, providing more benefits as more repetitions and sets are performed. Vasodilation and blood flow were higher following ATP supplementation, which would drive recovery processes.
Clinical Evidence

Increases Lean Body Mass by 100%

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP significantly increases lean body mass and muscle thickness over placebo.*
Clinical Evidence

Improves Blood Flow Up to 54%

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP supplementation increases the amount of ATP in red blood cells. When muscles are fatigued, red blood cells release ATP into the blood. The ATP binds to blood vessels and causes them to dilate. The end result is increased blood flow, oxygen delivery, and clearance of metabolic waste products such as lactate.
Clinical Evidence

Enlarges Muscle Calcium Pool

Muscle is excited by the release of calcium into the cell, which serves as the trigger for contraction. FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP works by increasing and sustaining the amount of calcium in the cell. As a result, athletes can lift more weight and produce a greater number of repetitions per set.

Acceptable for Use by All Athletes

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP is acceptable for use in sports and is not banned by any athletic body (per review of the 2013 Banned Substance List of WADA, NFL, MLB, NHL, NBA, NCAA, and NWBF).

Safe When Used as Directed

The safety of oral ingestion is well documented in both human and animal studies.

Protected by US Patents

US 7,629,329 Muscle Mass & Strength
US 5,547,942 Blood Flow & Vascular Function
US 6,723,737 Body Composition

Who Benefits?

Serious Athletes, Strength Competitors, and Bodybuilders

Athletes of all kinds are always looking for something to give them a competitive edge — whether for increasing power, strength, and muscle mass, reducing fatigue, or improving recovery. PEAK ATP® does it all.*

Casual Athletes and Weekend Warriors

Increasingly, everyday people trying to stay in shape are looking for supplements that can help them reap the most reward with the least effort. Because PEAK ATP® increases the work volume of a workout, it can help even the casual athlete or weekend warrior make the most of time spent exercising.*

Aging Adults and Those Wanting to Improve Body Composition

Sarcopenia is the normal loss of 0.5%-1% of muscle mass every year after the age of 25. Exercise is the most powerful tool to counteract sarcopenia, and PEAK ATP® can help maximize the effects of exercise on muscle mass and strength.

*PEAK ATP® is acceptable for use in sports and is not banned by any athletic body.

The Next Gen of N.O.?

L-citrulline and L-arginine

L-citrulline or L-arginine are amino acid precursors to nitric oxide and have been marketed as potential ergogenic aids based on their ability to increase blood flow to the exercising muscle. However, the daily dose needed to increase blood flow is high (6-24g) and the ergogenic response may depend on the training status and health of the subjects. Whereas some studies involving untrained or moderately healthy subjects showed that nitric oxide donors could improve tolerance to aerobic and anaerobic exercise, no significant improvements were measured in healthy or highly-trained subjects.

ATP

In contrast, oral FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP increases blood flow at mg doses and has been shown to increase lean body mass, strength and power in highly trained individuals.

Therefore, oral 400mg/day ATP supplementation is an apparently efficacious method if the intent is increasing post-exercise blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery.

Muscular Fatigue

When an athlete becomes fatigued, performance suffers.

Everyone knows this is true, but why does it happen?

Muscular fatigue is caused by a decrease in muscular excitability, or the muscle’s ability to respond rapidly to a stimulating agent telling the muscle to contract. That stimulating agent is calcium.

Unfortunately, exercise depletes calcium from muscle cells, causing a decrease in muscular excitability and an increase in fatigue.

In fact, a 50% decrease in calcium can result in an 80% reduction in force.1

The key to fighting muscular fatigue is to increase muscular excitability.

Increases in muscular excitability lead to an increase in the intensity of muscle contractions

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP increases:

  • Muscle excitability*
  • Levels of extracellular calcium*
  • Blood flow*
  • Nutrient and oxygen delivery*
  • Waste removal*

FOUNDATION Creatine + Real ATP decreases:

  • Muscle fatigue*
  • Recovery time*

1Zhang SJ et al. Limited oxygen diffusion accelerates fatigue development in mouse skeletal muscle. J Psysiol. 2006;572(2):551-9.